Involves an inference from mechanisms to claims that an intervention produces a patient-relevant outcome. Such reasoning will involve an inferential chain, linking the intervention (such as antiarrhythmic drugs) with a clinical outcome (such as mortality). (Howick)
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A method often used in systematic reviews. Meta-analyses use specific statistical techniques to combine data from different studies to arrive at one summary point estimate of effect. This should be done only if the studies were of good quality and were reasonably homogeneous (i.e. most had generally similar characteristics).
The overall, guiding approach taken by a research project or research design e.g. a randomised controlled trial, a cohort study, a case-control study, a cross-sectional study, a case series, a grounded theory study, a phenomenological study.
The approaches taken to identify a study sample, recruit participants, collect data or analyse data
Any medical test performed to confirm, or determine the presence of disease in an individual suspected of having the disease, usually following the report of symptoms, or based on the results of other medical tests. Some examples of diagnostic tests include performing a chest x-ray to diagnose pneumonia, and taking skin biopsy to detect cancerous cells. (Harvard Guide to Diagnostic test).