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In association with

  • APCRC
  • West
  • NHS

Glossary

Incidence

The number of new cases of illness commencing, or of persons falling ill, during a specified time-period in a given population.

Intention-to-treat

Characteristic of a study where patients are analysed in the groups to which they were originally assigned, even though they may have switched treatment arms during the study for clinical reasons.

Interpretive

Description of activity that identifies and explains meaning, usually from a particular perspective

Interpretivism

This employs subjectivity and is characterised by multiple realities; meanings that individuals attach to experiences and views of the world and utilises qualitative methodologies. Its language is that of words.

Joint strategic needs assessment (JSNA)

Joint Strategic Needs Assessment is a key source of evidence that describes current and future health and care needs of the local population to inform and guide the planning and commissioning of health and social care services within a local authority area.

King’s Fund

The King’s Fund is an independent charitable organisation that works to improve healthcare in the UK by providing research and health policy analysis. Offers library services and an information database.

Knowledge Management

A conscious strategy for moving the right knowledge to the right people at the right time which will be translated into action to improve the organisational performance.

Likelihood ratio

The likelihood that a given test-result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder, compared to the likelihood that the same result would be expected in a patient without that disorder. For a positive test result = LR+ = sensitivity/(1-specificity) For a negative test result = LR- = (1-sensitivity)/specificity.

Literature searches

A literature search is a well-thought-out and organised search for all of the literature published on a topic. A well-structured literature search is the most effective and efficient way to locate sound evidence on the subject you are researching.

Local and current random census

Local: Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a particular locality or neighbourhood.
Current: Occurring in or belonging to the present time
Random sample: A sample that is arrived at by selecting sample units such that each possible unit has a fixed and determinate probability of selection
Census: An enumeration of a population, originally intended for purposes of taxation and military service. Census enumeration of a population of a population usually records identities of all persons in every place of residence, with age, or birth date, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, and relationship to head of household – in addition to information on the dwelling place.

Local and current random sample survey

Local: Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a particular locality or neighbourhood
Current: Occurring in or belonging to the present time
Random sample: A sample that is arrived at by selecting sample units such that each possible unit has a fixed and determinate probability of selection.
Survey: An investigation in which information is systematically collected but in which the experimental method is not used.

Local non-random sample

Local: Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a particular locality or neighbourhood
Non-random sample: A sample selected by a non-random method, and as a result, some elements of the population have no chance of selection. For example, a scheme whereby units are selected purposively would yield a non-random sample. Again, a sample obtained by taking members at fixed intervals on a list is a non-random sample, unless the list was arranged in a random order.